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Technical SEO

Technical SEO

Technical SEO

Technical SEO refers to the optimisation work you do on your website technical infrastructure (HTML source code, server side codes, hosting, assets and more) to make it search engine friendly

When it comes to technical SEO there are few buzzwords that you need always to keep in mind:

  • Crawlability
  • Renderability
  • Indexability  (Readability )

How do search engines work (mainly Google):

When search engines find a new web page they send their crawlers (a software that behaves  like a browser installed on a powerful computer) to read the source code of that web page and save it to the search engines’ storing servers to be parsed and processed later.

Second step will be parsing that source code, possibility save missing resources like images, CSS and other dependencies if the crawler decides that the content in the code is readable without rendering (that happens when the content is included in a simple Javascript format) they will start processing it by turning that source code into structured data (think about your excel sheet, columns and rows, this format is database friendly). Search engines in this case need to isolate text from codes, if they find any Schema codes that will make turning the content into structured data easier for them, HTML elements like title tags and descriptions tags are also easy to process. If the crawler decides that this is Javascript heavy page that needs to be rendered to find the text content a more advance crawler will be sent later (some times in few days) to render the page and get it ready for processing, watch the video below to understand how Google’s crawlers work.

Renderability was it a thing when search engines started, it is a very resources intensive and slow process but with more websites using advanced JavaScript framework like Angular (where the source code doesn’t have any text content in some cases) search engines started to see a need to fully render the page in order to capture the content. The other benefit of fully rendering the page is understanding the location and the state of the content on the page (hidden content, above the fold or under the fold etc).

Currently the only search engine that does well in rendering is Google, they send a basic crawler at the beginning (it can understand simple JavaScript but not frameworks like Angular) then they comeback after with another crawler that can fully render the page, check this tool to see how a web page renders with Google bot 

Once processing is completed a functional copy of this page will be stored in search engines’ servers, they will make it available for the public eventually using the command cache:URL at this point the page will be fully indexed and able to rank with what ever keywords search engines decide to be relevant to.

Crawlability Optimization, Speed and mobile friendliness):

Firs step in making a website crawlable is providing access points to the crawlers:

  • Site map
  • Internal links from other pages
  • External Links
  • RSS feed
  • URL submission to Google or Bing Search Console, or using their indexing API if it is available for you

Discuss with your webmaster what happens when a new content is added to the website and make sure there is one or more access point available for the crawler to find that page (normally sitemap + one or more internal links from prominent pages), modern CMS like WordPress will provide access points automatically when adding a new post but they do not do that when you add a new page where you need to manually modify the information architecture to include that page.

Each piece of content available on your website must have it is own dedicated URL, this URL must be clean and not fragmented using  charterers like # . Single Page Application (SAP) is an example of a situation that you need to avoid where the whole website operates based on a single URL (normally the root domain and the reset will be fragmented URLs), in this case technologies like AJAX (mix of HTML and JavaScript) will be used to load content from the database to answer any new page request (#anotherpage), users will not see any issue with that but search engines will not be able to crawl the website as they use dedicated URLs as keys to define a page in their index (which is not available in this case as they totally ignore fragment URLs)

Search engines have a limit on the number of pages they can crawl from your website in a session they call it crawl budget, most websites (with less than a million pages and not a lot of new content added every day) do not need to worry about that, if you have a large website you need to make sure at least the new content is getting crawled and indexed quickly, providing good internal links for new pages and pushing them to the site map quickly can help a lot with that.

URLs management: Many websites use parameters in URLs for different reasons, many eCommerce websites use parameters in URLs to provide pages for the same product in different colours or the same product in different sizes (faceted navigation), sometimes search engines will be able to index those pages and they will end up with infinitive number of pages to crawl which can create a crawling issue and also a duplicate content issue. Search engines provide webmasters with different tools to control crawlability and indexability and exclude them from crawling, ideally if the website is structured well there will be less need to use any of the tools below to influence crawlability:

  • Robots.txt, a file located on the root of your website where you can provide rules and direction to search engines how to crawl the website, you can disallow search engines from crawling a folder, a pattern, a file or a file type.
  • Canonical tags, <link rel=”canonical” href=”” />  You can place them in page B’ header are to tell search engines about the page that has the original content is page A located under the canonical URL. Using canonical tags is a good alternative to 301 as they do not need any server side coding what makes them easier to implement
  • Redirects, I mean here the server side redirects 301 for example which is used to tell search engine that page A was moved to page B, this should be used only when the content on page B was moved to page A. It could be used also when there is more then one page with very similar content.
  • Meta refresh, <meta http-equiv=”refresh” content=”0;URL=’'” />   Normally located in the header area and tells browsers to redirect users to another page, search engines listen to meta refresh, when the waiting time is 0 they will be treated like 301 redirect
  • noindex tags, <meta name=”robots” content=”noindex”> They should be place in the header of a page that you do not search engines to crawl or index

The final thing to optimize for crawlbility is website speed which is a ranking factor also, few quick steps you can do to have a fast website:

  • Use a fast host, always make sure you have extra resources with your host, if your shared host is not doing the job just upgrade to a VPS or a dedicated server it is a worthwhile investment
  • Use a reliable fast CMS like WordPress
  • Cache your dynamic pages (WordPress posts for example) into an HTML format
  • Compress and optimize images
  • Minify CSS and JavaScript

To test your website you can use different speed testing tools listed here

Google Bot For Mobile:

With mobile users surpassing desktop users few years ago mobile friendly websites are becoming more important for user experience, search engines like Google have created a mobile crawler to understand more how the website is going to look for mobile users, when they find the website ready for mobile users they set their mobile crawler as the default crawler for this website (what they call mobile first), there are few steps you can take to make sure your website is mobile friendly (for both users and crawlers):

Use responsive design for your website

Keep important content above the fold

Make sure your responsive website is errors free, you can use GSC for that or Google Mobile Friendly Test

Keep the mobile version as fast as possible, if you can not do that for technical or design reasons consider using Accelerated Mobile Pages (AMP)

Renderability Optimization:

The best SEO optimization you can do for rederability is to remove the need for search engines to render your website using second crawling (advance crawling) to see the content, if your website is built around some advanced Javascript platform like Angular it will be a good idea to give crawlers like Google bot a pre-rendered HTML copy of each page (regular users can still get the Angular format of the website), this could be done using third party solutions like

Do not block resources (CSS, JavaScript and images) that are need to render the website, back in the days webmasters used to block those resources using robots.txt to reduce the load on the server or for security purposes, inspect your website using Google Search Console, if you see any blocked resources that are needed to render the website and you see the rendered page of your website by Google broken talk to your webmaster how you can safely allow those resources for crawling

Indexability Readability (Schema)

When a website is optimized well for crawlability and renderability, Indexability will be almost automatically taken care of, the key point for indexability is providing a page with a dedicated clean URL that returns unique content with a substance and loads fast so search engines can crawl and store in their severs.

Content to avoid to avoid indexability issues:

  • Thin content as it may not be kept in the index ..
  • duplicate content
  • Text content in images,  text in SWF files, text in a video file and text in complex JavaScript file, this type of content will not make its way to the index and it will not be searchable in Google

Content that can help search engine in parsing and indexability:

  • Structured data mainly Schema can help search engines to turn content into structured data almost without any processing, eventually that will help your website to have rich results in the SERP (example for that is the five stars review that Google add for some websites)
  • Using HTML markup to organize content (i.e. <h2>, <strong>, <ol>, <li>, <p>) will make it easier for search engines to index your content and show it when applicable in their featured snippets like the answer box for example.

Monitoring and errors fixing:

Contentious monitoring of websites crawlability and indexability is key to avoid any situation where part of the website becomes uncrawlable for some reason (could be your webmaster adding noindex tag to every page on the website), there are different tool that can help you with that:

  • Google Search Console (GSC), after verifying your website with GSC Google will start providing you with feedback regarding your website’ health with Google, the index coverage is the most important section in the dashboard to keep eye on to find out about crawlability and indexability issues. Google will send messages through the message centre (could be forwarded to your email) for serious crawlability issues
  • Crawling tools: SEMrush, Ahrefs, Oncrawl, Screaming Frog can be helpful to find out about errors
  • Monitor 404 errors in Google Analytics and GSC, make sure to customize your 404 error pages, add the word 404 not found to the title tag so it becomes easier to find 404 error pages using Google analytics
  • Monitor indexability, check if the number of indexed pages in GSC make sense based on the size of your website (should not be too big or too small comparing to the actual number of unique pages you have on your website)
  • Monitory renderability using the URL inspection tool in GSC, make sure Google can render that pages as close as possible to how users can see it, pay attention to blocked resources that are required to render the website (the URL inspection tool will notify you about them)


Index coverage monitoring and analysis definitely needs to be a service that you offer to your clients as an SEP specialist, a GSC monthly or quarterly audit is strongly recommended.

Next step: user experience and conversion rate optimization


Technical SEO Tracking & Analytics

Daily Reading to Stay up-to-date With the SEO Industry Changes

SEO is a very dynamic industry that changes almost on a daily basis, there is something new every day to read about or to learn about. It is strongly recommended to read (watch videos and listen to podcasts) for an hour or more every day. I will list below the websites (mostly blogs) that I check on a daily basis for news and updates, the links below will take you directly to their RSS feed page so you can add it to any reader of your choice (I personal use which has a Google Chrome Plugin, Phone APP and a web based interface)

This is how will look like in your Google Chrome, the number in the blue box will refer to the number of the unread posts from the websites your are subscribed to

  1. SEO Round Table
  2. Search Engine Land
  3. Search Engine Journal
  4. MOZ Blog
  5. Search Engine Watch
  6. Ahrefs Blog
  7. SEMrush Blog
  8. PPC Hero
  9. Distilled
  10. Webmaster World
  11. Bright Local
  12. Google Ads
  13. Google Analytics



Technical SEO Tracking & Analytics Uncategorized UX and CRO

Best Tools to Evaluate Website Speed

When it comes to measuring website speed I recommend:

1- Testing the home page + few other key pages from the website

2- Test in different times of the days and different days of the week

3- Test using more than one tool (two at least)

Web Page Test:

Available form multiple locations, multiple devices and using different internet speed, provides speed index (the time required for the site to visually load for users even if there is still process going in the background of the website)

This tool provides insights how to speed up the website, a report, and a video showing the load progress.

Google Speed Insight:

The tool has become more valuable after adding Light House data and Google Chrome data (not available for every website), be aware that score is not speed, speed is measured by seconds only, seeing very low score does matter a lot of your web page speed is 3 seconds or less

This tool provides insights how to speed up the website, a report, a video showing the load progress and industry comparison.


Available form multiple locations, multiple devices and using different internet speed, this tool can track speed history (paid feature) which is a handy feature to evaluate the website speed though out the whole day or the whole week

This tool provides insights how to speed up the website, a report, a video showing the load progress

Test my Site By Google

This tool is designed to analyze speed on mobile websites with low speed connection (3G), it provides insights how to speed up the website, a report and industry comparison

Google Developer Tools (Advanced)

This is a built in extension with Google Chrome, it has the ability to change connection speed, device, disable/enable cache.


Google Analytics (the numbers there are not very reliable)

GA provides average page load time in seconds, I did it find it that reliable, possibility because it averages number from different users and it works based on the code load completion which is not always a reflection of the actuation page load

Off Page SEO On Page SEO Technical SEO Uncategorized UX and CRO

SEO Training Courses and Conferences

There are many online resources that cover the SEO fundamentals and give you a good jump start in your SEO career

Search Engine Optimization starter guide (by Google)

This should be the fist document your read, it covers the basics of on page and technical SEO

Google Quality Guidelines

This is very important one to read especially if you are planning to be aggressive in your link building efforts

Google Quality Raters Guidelines

Google uses quality raters (humans) to evaluate their search results so their engineer can improve them, what we learned about Google’s logarithm throughout the years that it will always try to replicate human quality judgment, reading this document will give you an idea where is Google’s algorithm going

SEO Learning Center (by Moz)

Similar to Google’s starter guide

Google Best Practice (mainly for ads)

This is Google’s best practice document for ad, quality guidelines for ads apply in most cases to SEO which makes this document worthy to read even for SEOs


Conferences to attend:

Going to conferences to learn is not going to give you the best ROI, going there to network and meet new people is the investment you should be looking for

SMX – Search Marketing Expo




Technical SEO Tracking & Analytics

Enhance Your SEO Resume with Those Internet Marketing Certificates

In this post I am going to include what certifications can help you to land your next SEO job (I will add another post for some training courses), the certificates below have online training sections that you need to go through before taking the exam, if you pass the exam you will be granted a digital certificate that you can print and hang in you office, you will also get a web page that you can add to your Linkedin profile, the certifications below will give you an instant advantage with any poetical employer

Google Analytics Academy

Google Analytics for Beginners
Advanced Google Analytics
Google Analytics for Power Users
Getting Started With Google Analytics 360

Google Mobile Sites certification

Google Partners

Google Ads Display Certification
Google Ads Mobile Certification
Google Ads Search Certification
Google Ads Video Certification
Google Shopping Certification
Digital Sales Certification
Google Ads Fundamentals

Facebook Core Competencies Exam

Facebook Planning Exam

SEMrush course SEMrush Academy

Hubspot inbound certification

If you are asking why do I need paid search or marketing automation certificates if I will be applying to a SEO job? SEO for most companies is one piece of the whole marketing landscape that includes in most cases, social media marketing, PPC, SEO and marketing automation. SEO specialists in most cases will be working closely with other digital marketing channels and they need at least a basic understanding of how those other channels work.

The other benefit of having PPC certifications is that smaller companies tend to hire one in-house marketing individuals to manage all their digital marketing channels, being at least familiar with PPC channels will increase the number of jobs you can apply to.

Off Page SEO On Page SEO Technical SEO Tracking & Analytics UX and CRO

Tools That You Need To Master If You Want to Be a SEO Expert

There are some tools and platforms that you need to master if you want to be the SEO expert, some of those tools are used for monitoring and tracking others are used to make your work more efficient, many of those tools will be required for a SEO specialist role (many employers ask for them in the job listing)

Google Search Console GSC (Bing also has its own):

This tool has been growing for years and becoming the most important tool for SEO specialists, why?

1- This is only place where you can see what keywords are receiving impressions, clicks, CTR and where do they rank

2- The message center is an important communication tool that Google uses to tell you about issues and improvements for your website

3- The index coverage and crawlability information contain very valuable insights that will help you to understand how Google crawls and index your website

4- A sample of links pointing to your website will be available there

A dedicated post related to Google Search will be posted soon I will make sure I link to it form this post

Google Analytics (GA):

“You can not measure it you can not improve it”, GA is the tool when it comes to track traffic sources and users’ interaction with the website. Key hings you need to know how to do  there:

1- Setup goals and track goals per source

2- Understand and analyze bounce rate, time on site and pages per session

3- Analyze traffic by medium/source

4- Attribution models

5- Reporting on conversions

It is strongly recommend to be Google Analytics certified by passing the Google Analytics Individual Qualification (IQ) test

Google My Business:

Things you need to learn:

  • How to submit and edit a business
  • How to monitor users interactions like reviews, phone calls
  • How to tag the URL using utm tags so you can identify GMB traffic in GA

Link analysis tools:

Those tools will enable you to analyze the link profile of any website, the most popular usage of those tools is creating competition analysis reports that help to understand the authority gap between your client’s website and other competitors, the most popular ones are:





Keyword research Tools:

Learning about the your client’s business then finding the more relevant keywords to that business is the starting point for any SEO projects, there are many tools that can help with that and all of them are using Google’s database:




Google Keyword planner

Website speed tools:

Website speed is a ranking factor with Google and it is important to keep eye on website speed on a regular basis, the best tools that can help with that are:

1- Web page test

2- GT metrix (I like their speed monitoring service)

3- Google Speed test

4- Think with Google speed test

5- Google Analytics  (the numbers there are not very reliable)


Mobile friendliness tools:

Mobile users have surpassed desktop users a long time ago and Google is following that trend by focusing more on mobile users, Google bot desktop is being replaced with Google mobile crawler. Making sure that is a website is mobile friendly an important practice that SEO specialists need to focus on, tools that can help with that:

1- Google mobile friendly tool

2- Google search console mobile usability section

Structured data tools:

Major search engines use structured data (Schema is the most popular one) to have better understand of the content structure (providing content in a database friendly format), once structured data is added to a website there are many tools that can help to preview them and test them for errors

Facebook open graph tool

Bing markup validator 

Google rich results Test

Crawlability tools:

The first step any search engine needs to start with is crawling the web, if the content is not crawlable or reachable (via a link or site map) then search engines will not find it, index it and rank it. Best tools to find about credibility issues:

1- Google Search Console

2- Screaming Frog

3- SEMrush

4- DeepCrawl